International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article : Original Research

Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 3 | Page No. 1225-1229

Date of Publication: 02-08-2015



Sumita Agarwal * 1, Syed Hyder Hasan Zaidi 2, Surendra Kumar Agarwal 3.

*1Research Ph.D. Scholar, Dept. of Anatomy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2 Professor& Head of Dept. of Anatomy, Rohilkhand Medical College& Hospital. Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3 Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, Rohilkhand Medical College& Hospital, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh,India.

Address: Sumita Agarwal, S-202, Platinum Paradise Residency,45, Kishanpur, Canal Road, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)-248001., Mobile No.+918393024688, +919760049499. E-Mail: docsumita29@gmail


Background: The body height measurement plays an important role in personal and medico legal identification and has become invaluable aid to scientific research in Anatomy, especially anthropological anthropometry. This study is conducted to find the correlation between body height and foot length & knee height measurements in both the sexes and to determine accurate and best predictor of height from above two parameters using Correlation Coefficient.
Methods: Asymptomatic, healthy 1000 subjects (500 males and 500 females), residents of Teerthanker Mahaveer University of cosmopolitan origin age over 18 years old were studied. Their body height, Foot lengths and knee height were measured and all the readings were subjected to Statistical Analysis using mean  standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses.
Result: In present study, correlation coefficients (r) values between body height, foot lengths and knee height were found to be statistically significant and positive in both males, females and in combined data, with highest ‘r’ value of knee height followed by foot lengths. Regression equations for estimating body height were developed for each of these parameters by Linear Regression.
Conclusion: The study suggests the Knee height to be the best body height indicator developed for estimation of body height according to gender including age as a predictor variable in order to reduce the inherent problem of sample specificity and enhance accuracy confidence in the estimation. 
KEY WORDS: Body height, Foot length, Knee height, Correlation Coefficient, Linear Regression Analysis.


  1. Article 6 of Universal Declaration of Human Right- General Assembly Resolution. 217-A(3rd),dt10.12.1948, UN General Assembly Official Records.3rd Session, pg.71-77.
  2. Singh I P & Bhasin M K. A Laboratory manual of biological Anthropometry. 1st ed.Delhi; Kamal Raj Enterprises, 1989, pgs. 3-7,16,21,36.
  3. Rao N G, Kotian MS., Foot print ratio- A clue for establishing sex identity. J. Ind. Acad Forensic  Med.1990,12:51-56.
  4. Ingrid H.E. Rutishauser. Prediction of height from foot length use of measurement in field survey. Arch. Dis. Child,1968, 43, 310. 
  5. Patel SM, Shah GV, Patel SV. Estimation of height from measurements of foot length in Gujarat region. J Anat. Soc.India 2007: 56:25-7.
  6. Hurley RS, Bartlett BJ, Witt DD, Thomas A, Taylor EZ. Comparative evaluation of body composition in medically stable elderly. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997; 97: 1105-1109.
  7. Pielerre S. Anthropometric measurement results. Help Age Symposium report. 1997;13-18.
  8. Han TS, Lean MEJ. Lower leg length as an index of stature in adults. Int J Obes. 1996; 20: 21-27
  9. Stewart, T.D. (1952). In Hridalika’s Practical Anthropometry,4th ed. p.208. Phibioclphia: Wistar Institute.
  10. Zerfas A.J. checking continuous measures Manual for anthropometry. (Divisions of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, 1985; Los Angeles,).
  11. Weinberg SM, Scott NM, Neiswanger K, Marazita M. Intraobserver error associated with measurements of the hand. American journal of Human Biology, 2005; 17: 368-371.
  12. Mueller WH, Martorell R. Reliability and accuracy of measurement. In: Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R, editors. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books; 1988. p. 83_/6.
  13. Chumlea WC, Guo S, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL, Leahy CK. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES 1982_/1984). Am J Clin Nutr 1990;/51:/902S_/7S.
  14. Ulijaszek SA, Kerr DA Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. Br J Nutr 1999;82: 165–77
  15. Jantz LM and Jantz RL. Secular changes in long bone length and proportion in the United States 1800-1970. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1999, 110:57- 67.
  16. Lera L, Luis Santos J, García C, Arroyo P, Albala C. Predictive equations for stature in the elderly: A study in three Latin American cities. Annals Human Biology.2005; 32: 773-781.
  17. Chumlea WC, Guo SS, Steinbaugh ML. Prediction of stature from knee height for black and white adults and children with application to mobility-impaired or handicapped persons. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994; 94: 1385-1388, 1391.
  18. Han TS, Lean MEJ. Lower leg length as an index of stature in adults. Int J Obes. 1996;20: 21-27.
  19. Chumlea WC, Guo SS, Wholihan K Cockram D, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Stature prediction equations for elderly non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American persons developed from MHANES III data. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 137-142.
  20. Palloni A, Guend A., Stature prediction equations for elderly Hispanics in Latin American countries by sex and ethnic background. JGerontol Med. Sci. 2005;60: 804-810.
  21. Donini LM, de Felice MR, de Bernardini L, Ferrari G, Rosano A, dé Medici M, Cannella C. Prediction of stature in the Italian elderly. J  Nutrition, Health &Aging.2000; 4: 72-76.
  22. Zhang H, Hsu-Hage BHH, Wahlqvist ML. The use of knee height to estimate maximum stature in elderly Chinese. J Nutrition, Health & Aging.1998; 2: 84-87.
  23. Myers SA, Takiguchi S, Yu M. Stature estimated from knee height in elderly Japanese Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994; 42: 157-160.
  24. Shahar S., Pooy NS. Predictive equations for estimation of stature in Malaysian elderly people. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2003;12: 80-84.
  25. Cockram DB, Baumgartner RN. Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of calipers for measuring recumbent knee height in elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr.1990; 52: 397-400.
  26. Knous BL, Arisawa M. “Estimation of height in elderly Japanese using region-specific knee height equations.” Am J. Human Biology. 2002;14: 300-307.


Sumita Agarwal, Syed Hyder Hasan Zaidi, Surendra Kumar Agarwal. CORRELATION OF BODY HEIGHT BY FOOT LENGTH AND KNEE HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS IN POPULATION OF NORTH INDIA. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(3):1225-1229. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.197




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Submit Manuscript